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ART204 Egypt Intro

Primitive Identity

Neolithic Art—15–3000 BC

Out of caves, temperate abundant environment. People finish exploring the world. Settling into most abundant places.

At best their cultures are egalitarian, at worst barbarian sacrifice.

At best, Bond with Cosmos 3-9 years, reflecting evolution of civilized consciousness is continued.

Which identifies a trust and belief in ancestral connection, Divine organs. Confirmed in their art and mythology.

Time of megaliths, and prophetic calendars.

Stonehenge, Giza, Complex.

Mythology—Neolithic
  • Atlantis, Floods and Pole shifts. 12500yrs. Cycle of opportunity.
  • Archetypes of Creation, Apocalypses, the cycle of birth, death, and rebirth, is established all over the planet.
  • Old testament stories before UR in Mesopotamia, of divine intervention.
  • Melchizedek –3rd Revelation, there is one God that is forgiving and compassionate.
  • Counterpart to regional deities warring for control.
Egyptian Art 6—2000 BC

Immortality 9-10 yrs 1st concern with a final death.

Egyptian art establishes beliefs in a transcendental death. Between the mortal and divine. First Monotheistic religion.

A most interesting time period and culture discovered, that may suggest a much different idea of our historical past, than we are only beginning to be able to believe with our present history and technology.

They left a record of a great understanding of the Earth's relationship to the solar system in mathematical language that defies a lot of contemporary mainstream beliefs.

There is evidence of how this culture knew more than we do in terms of how to apply available energy sources.

The Egyptians developed a mythology that lays the foundation for much of what we see evolve through the Greeks, to the Early Christians, in terms of Immortality and divine origins.

I. Prehistory 20–14000 BC Neolithic
  • Severe drought, before flooding
  • People begin settling along the Nile River.
  • Confirmation of peaceful coexistence and tribal warfare.
II. Pre dynastic—8–4000 BC Informative Years. Gift of the Nile.
  • The landscape is warm and abundant.
  • The Nile River and delta offer permanent settlement with rich resources.
  • Architectural burial sites, Astrological circles.
  • Myth and religion become more sophisticated.
  • Religion follows local deities: sun and moon worship, dualistic mythology
  • Upper and Lower Egypt become major centers.
  • Megaliths evolve from Stone Circles, astrological calendars, to Sphinx and Giza plateau.
III. Old Kingdom—2700–2100 BC
  • Confident, self assured, benevolent Pharaohs
  • Unification of lower and upper Nile River. Written records on clay, hides, then papyrus.
  • Worship of solar deity Ra, and Hathor
  • Complexes of Doser, and Giza Plateau
  • Priest class will come in conflict with rulers
IV. Middle Kingdom 2100–1700 BC Military Rule
  • Political stress and invasions, City States united to meet threat
  • Somber worldly concerns, time of Moses and Salem group in Mesopotamia.
  • Expansion into south in Nubia.
V. New Kingdom

The great Pharaohs; Hatshepsut, Ramesses Nefertiti, Akhenaten and Tutankhamen
Expansion of Empire, opulent, heroic scale, cosmopolitan.

  • 1100-500 BC Libyan, Assyrian, Persian conquests
  • 322 BC Alexander the Great takes culture to Greece
  • 100 BC Roman conquest
  • 58 BC Anthony and Cleopatra

Egypt is defined by the Nile, 4,000 miles long, 1,000 of which, runs through what becomes the Egyptian Empire.

The time frame parallels Mesopotamia, but the environmental influences are opposite.

Egypt is protected on all sides by the Mediterranean Sea, the crocodile infested wilderness, and the desert to the west.

The "Gift of the Nile" sustains the longest recorded culture in our history.

Socially, the river offered stability, abundance and a regularity that sustains and influences growing population centers. The wind carried their boats up the river in the morning and the current took them down in the afternoon.

With so much idyllic time, the first historical concern with the concepts of immortality and divine influence is established in the art.

A very ideal place, for a long period, to develop the greater potentials of being human.

Other geographic culture's, of this time will show another side of behavior, which can put pressure on natural resources, but communities and people can choose, to either cooperate together to meet larger demands of the whole, or use warfare to conquer other communities, which does help reduce population.

For 1,000's of years from 15,000 to 6000 BC separate clans, or communities of Egyptian people lived near each other and celebrated the cycle of the river. Usually they sometimes cooperated, but archeological discoveries of human bones with flint tips in them dating to 14000BC.

The cycle of the river was identified as the Inundation, Emergence, and Harvest. Because of the dependable source of food and the inherited concept of intelligent cooperation and equal exchange Egypt sustains itself for 1,000's of years before the culture shifts to dominate patriarchal political systems.

Free to develop without outside influences or internal conflict for such a long time, a culture will naturally evolve to Identity concerns. Or, the relationship to the mysteries beyond survival concerns and limitations of ego left brain thinking.

Egyptian art identifies the transcendental concepts of birth and death and rebirth, as it is reflected in the cyclic nature of things. Such as the Earth's relationship to the sun and moon, the equinoxes, and the solstices.

The micro event of this rhythm is one's own life, death and rebirth.

Humanistically, Egyptian art identifies a benchmark of being human. The concept of Immortality that follows the bond with family, and nature.

The art was made by crafts people aligned with the centers of learning or religion

Egyptian art is almost entirely about their concern with a transcendental death, or life force.

Philosophically, they believed that each person has a double, a non-physical life force that goes back to its origins after a physical death.

The aspect of physical self is called Ka, the dualistic opposite of Ba, the spiritual self. The art and mythology is to ensure an easy, predictable transition to the next life for Ka.

Their understanding of this was acted out in a pantheon of gods and goddesses.

Later, it becomes the idea of that Ka needs the body and other material things in the next life. Thus mummification and stone sculpture of the deceased were made to make a place for Ka to enjoy in the next life, or on this plane, for Ba to visit and continue to help oversee this world, through the Pharoh's image in the temple.

Until the 20th century, Egypt was known as a mystery culture, preceding Rome and Greece. Brought to European attention with Napoleon's invasion of Southern Europe and Africa and the deciphering of the Rosetta Stone in the late 1800's.

We have more understanding with today's technology.

Today's academic view divides the Egyptian culture into the Pre-Dynastic, to 3000 BC. During which the Nile region was settled after the ice ages. Then,

Old Kingdom—2700 BC to 2100 BC

1st to 12th Dynasty

  • Little, if any records of their daily life or activities.
  • The art is centered in temples and funerary complexes.
Middle Kingdoms—2000 BC to 1700 BC
  • Military Unification Moses and the and Old Testament
  • Beginning of written history The Art is less confident, begins to show conflict.
New Empire—1600 BC to 100 BC
  • Age of Great Pharaohs
  • Art celebrates wealth and power of the great Pharaohs.
  • Politically expansive, ends with Anthony and Cleopatra.
  • Greek, then Rome will become the dominant influence in the Mediterranean after 1000 BC
The Informative, or Pre Dynastic

The Delta of the Nile. 8000–3000 BC

From migrating hunter and gatherer to permanent settlements and domesticated animals. Hybrid seeds with predictable irrigation. They fished, grew cereal grains and tended cattle, sheep, pigs and goats. The crafts of basketry, pottery, weaving and tanning of hides became a part of daily life.

By 6-4000 BC the delta shows evidence of a longheaded peoples from the south of African origins, called Nubians. They settle the lower regions of the Nile. A town of 10,000 or more dated 3500 BC, with evidence of a temple complex to religiously celebrate Hathor and Ra and the immortality of the soul. Early stone circles with astrological alignments.

Then a migration from the north of a more Asian people that will blend with migrations from the south.

With the seasons, villages cooperated to control water flow, leads to irrigation technology, to move water up to another level. And politically the first laws don't kill, steal or block flow of water.

Each of the larger chiefdoms or permanent settlements at the end of the Pre-dynastic Period were connected to a religious center, with a shrine or temple of the local anthropomorphic deity. The king identified himself with the Sun god Ra, who through the Pharaoh governed the early plane.

Nearly every god of the Egyptian Pantheon was visualized in the form of an animal, bird or even an inanimate object.

The god could adopt the form of an animal in order to become manifest, but this did not mean the animal itself was regarded as a deity.

Early Sumerians also had similar myths of elemental spirits and a divine influence which they identified with the celestial realms.

Informative: Pre-dynastic Mythology/Religion

Myth and ritual were developed to acknowledge philosophically the natural laws that govern a dualistic reality: day/night, spring/winter, life/death/rebirth, mortal / divine.

Which was confirmed in their nature through the rhythm of the Nile and the predictable movements of the galaxy. This was personified by naming the dawn Ka and dusk as Ba.

We know that in early ritual the Egyptians celebrated Hathor, the sky goddess, depicted as a cow nourishing the world below her. Hathor's image was paraded from her temple to the rising sun Ra each morning, or birth of a new day.

Pre-dynastic Egyptian philosophy reflects the sense of an ordered cosmos, a predictable movement of the celestial in relationship with Earth. All human activities are thought to be part of a grand design of balance and harmony. Philosophically this life was seen as preparation for a next more glorious life in eternity.

Egyptian religion and mythology at the cultural level becomes the story of Isis, and Osiris who conceive Horus. It is a story in humanistic terms of the desire to make sense of life and death and divine origins.

Egyptian art and mythology, reflects their beliefs that life transcends a physical death.

In migratory times the dead were buried to quickly go back to the earth. With permanent settlements cemeteries are found.

In the Pre-dynastic period the dead were buried with provisions for the journey into the next life as well as pottery, jewelry, and other artifacts.

Offerings of cereals, dried meat and fruit were included, hunting and farming implements were also common. The Egyptians believed that the next life would be very much like this one.

The dead were buried in a fetal position, surrounded by the burial offerings and artifacts facing west, all prepared for the journey to the next life.

The Southern cultures, were almost completely agrarian farmers. The Northern counterparts were oasis dwellers, who relied on hunting and fishing for the majority of their diet.

Objects began to be made not only with a function, but also with an aesthetic value. Pottery was painted and decorated.

Historically

The concepts of a divine king are established in Egyptian history by 3000 BC. These leaders came to be called Pharaoh's, an Old Testament word for "The Great House".

Politically a benevolent authority, originally seen as " the steward of the land" from the stars. He brings greater understanding, an elevated standard of being human, for which the people cared for and then return him to his origin.

Esoterically, it is genetic transfer of elevated consciousness that was given. Knowledge of our origins, in the identity sense.

Socially in ancient times Egyptian people lived under a benign class distinction. Farmers tended fields; crafts-people and servants sustained the pharaoh's court and a growing priest class. And like other places around the world, after harvest laborers helped build the temple complexes.

Ra, is symbolized as the sun, the giver of new consciousness. Appears at daybreak as Atum, Ra at high noon and Khepri into the dusk.

Ra advises the Pharaoh through Horus the Falcon God.

Pharaoh's were seen as the son of Horus and Isis. Whose roles are reenacted by the pharaoh and priestess in the temples, or the great pyramid at Giza.

A 5th dynasty funerary temple shows a map on the ceiling pointing where the pharaoh will rejoin the divine at his physical death. The first images of the Pharaoh are in boats taking him back to his origins. Solar boats are found outside the great pyramids.

Difficult to imagine the stories, mythology and art, that comes from this time that are of great interest:

  • King Solomon and others who lived 100's of years
  • Elijah and his Chariot ride.  Ark of Covenant
  • Moses, Parting of the Red Sea, and the Burning Bush
  • Evidence of nicotine and coca in Egyptian mummies.

Egyptian Myths of Creation reflect people's inherent curiosity about where we came from and will go.

The workings of gods, and all human activities were all thought to be part of a grand design of balance and harmony revealed here by the pharaohs.

It was taught that death was to be feared only by those who lived a disruptive life. If a good life is led, then one could be confident that their spirit would live on in eternity. The concept of Maat. Light is the heart that does good deeds. Heavy is the heart that is not in harmony with the whole.

An early creation myth. Before the development of a structured cosmos, there existed in darkness a limitless ocean of inert water. It was envisioned as the primeval origins called Nu.

No temples were ever built to honor this spiritual force. But is symbolized in the form of the sacred lake, which is the non-physical before creation.

This vast expanse of water never ceases to be, and after creation was imagined to surround the celestial guarding the sun, moon, stars, and earth as well as the boundaries of the underworld, like an egg with the yolk as the center.

Atum, the creator of the world, rose out of Nu at the beginning of time to create the elements of the universe. This primeval thought became manifested as a mound from the water, formalized as a pyramid, elevated to support the sun god that brought life.

The actual stone relic in early ritual was perhaps regarded as the purified semen of Atum. This artifact was alleged to survive in the Hewet-Benben (Mansion of the Ben-Ben) in Heliopolis.

A further development of the creation myth says, that the sun god Ra or Ra-Atum, having both male and female principles, formed himself out of the waters of the chaos, or unformed matter. Emerging through thought, seated atop a mound of sand hardened by his own rays.

Then by spitting or ejaculating he created the gods of wetness and dryness, Tefnut and Shu, who in turn begat the male Geb (earth) and the female Nut (sky).

Geb and Nut produced two sons, Osiris and Set, brothers of the river and desert respectively, and two daughters Isis and Nephthys.

With Isis as his wife, Osiris became King of civilization, Set king of deserts. The envious brother Set promptly kills Osiris and hacks his body to pieces. Taking the throne for himself.

Isis and her sister, Nephthys, gathered up the scattered remains and, with the help of the god Anubis, put Osiris back together. Except for the phallus, which was replaced with a wooden one. A symbol of the tree and earth elements.

Isis conceives a son Horus, with Osiris. Horus will defeat Set and become advisor to the Pharaohs, while Osiris retires to the underworld as overseer of the passage from this life to the next, the first historical example of overcoming a physical, death on the earthly plane, Immortality.

Set will become the symbol of the desert, storms, and upheavals.
Later Seth, will become the early Hebrew's Satan.

In some myths the Egyptian primeval state is chaos, and the great ocean is characterized as a dragon. In this Egyptian mythology it was Apepi or Apophis, the great primordial serpent whom lived in the waters of celestial Nile or metaphorically the Milky Way. The essence of Apepi or Apophis, is an early form of a light god who resided within the abyss before the creation of the worlds.

Conflicting claims for creation did not disturb the Egyptians. Memphite kings, for example believed that Ptah had created the world "by conceiving with his mind and uttering with his tongue" which suggests a creation by the word.

An all, these stories lay a foundation for western thinking philosophically and religiously.

The Myth of Osiris

A myth that personifies the mortal emotions and desires that is common to the divine.

Isis and Osiris are married, and Nut, the sky goddess, proclaims Osiris King of Upper and Lower Egypt. Set, the jealous or other-side of self first attempts to kill Osiris by sending a snake, but Ra cures Osiris.

Set then decides to kill him by fashioning a beautiful box designed to fit Osiris perfectly.

Osiris, who had been off bringing agriculture and civilization to his people, returned to a celebration. Set invites everyone to lie in the box. Which he promised to give whomever it fit.

When Osiris got in, Set clamped the box and threw it into the Nile. Isis later finds Osiris's body washed up at Byblos, in ancient Pheonicia, and brought him back to Egypt, where she hid it for proper burial.

But Set accidentally found the body while he was hunting and tore it into fourteen pieces, which he threw far and wide over the kingdom. The Nile fish Oxythnchus, devoured the phallus.

Isis recovers all the pieces, and fits them back together except for phallus, which she replaced with a wood model. Which metaphorically acknowledges procreative powers of the earthly realm.
Later in Mesopotamia, it becomes the sacrificial blood of the sun god.

Then she breaths life into Osiris and mounts his phallus, conceives Horus and then goes back to the stars with Osiris fulfilling their promise, by leaving Horus as the divine steward of the people.

When Upper and Lower Egypt are unified in early history, Set has become the enemy of Horus, rather than a necessary mirror of dualism.

Osiris then, is the first western culture hero who teaches through Horus his son, the divine gift of immortality.

Egyptian Pre-dynasty to Old Kingdom 6000-4000 BC
Giza Complex, which the textbook dates 2700 - 2100 BC .

From architectural studies of ancient Egypt, there is considerable evidence of early astronomical knowledge.

The great temple of Amon, at El Karnak was aligned with the midwinter sunrise during the epoch of Thutmose III (1479-26 BC).

A near by temple celebrates the Egyptian moon god. Was built to align the northern most extreme of the new moon crescent at the time of the summer solstice.

A shaft into the ground next to Giza pyramid tracked the moon cycles.

The Sphinx was the first megalithic structure on the plateau.

The Sphinx: 2530 BC

Limestone bedrock, granite temple, 66 ft X 220 ft by 66 ft. high.

Mainstream Ideas, facts.

It is said to be built during the construction of the second pyramid. The Pharaoh Khafre built it in 3000 BCE. But that's questionable.

The Sphinx was buried to its neck in sand by the twentieth dynasty. New Kingdom 1500 BC, and was cleared away in the 19th century.

It was significantly damaged for religious reasons by an Arab named Saim-el-Dahr, in the early 15th century.

Temples are built in front of the Sphinx, apparently these were places of worship used over the centuries by succeeding Pharaohs.

The Sphinx was related to the sun god, Faces East.

Combines figure of a man, lion, bird, and cobra.

The Sphinx, Giza Plateau.

Carved from limestone bedrock to stand guard before the Giza Pyramids. Workmen quarried a U-shaped pit to obtain blocks for the pyramid and nearby temples, they left a core to sculpt into the sphinx.

About 1400 BC, Thumose IV, son of Pharaoh Amenthotep II, stopped his hunting party by the enormous head rising from the sand. While he napped under its chin, the Sphinx appeared in a dream.

The Great Sphinx prophesied he would be made king. If he uncovered the top portion and encased its weathered body in limestone blocks, and painted it blue, yellow, and red.

When he became Pharaoh, he inscribed his dream on a tall granite stela. It became the centerpiece of an open-air shrine below the statue. The 66 'foot high colossus was extensively reworked in 279 BC By Ramesses II. He placed two of his own stela on the sidewalls of the shrine.

The two-temple sanctuaries are aligned with equinoxes.
12 Statue foundation posts, for 200 ton Lintels from hardest red granite. Worked with Bronze tools?

Hidden chambers and tunnels, one with a door, seen by underground cameras. Evidence from ground penetrating radar reveals a tunnel beneath the causeway between the Great Sphinx and the Great Pyramid. Secret chamber in right shoulder house the Hall of Records.

Water marks, shells embedded in the limestone covering. From the flooding of Nile basin 8 – 7000 BC which then created the Black Sea?

Fossils of spiral-shaped shell fish and oysters embedded in the entry wall, weathering patterns suggested water, not sand and wind erosion.

Sahara is 9,000 years old.

Age of Leo, preceding Taurus? A divine solar enlightenment advancing human consciousness.

The constellation reached its vernal equinox, age of Leo, in relation to the location of the Sphinx on the horizon in 10,500 BC.

Giza Complex / Great Pyramids

The Egyptian pyramids reflect early creation myths.
From the waters of Nu, Ra, the sun god created a mound on which Sat rose the phoenix, a symbol of rebirth.

The Giza Pyramids contain most of the fundamental mathematical laws that many now attribute to the Greek Pythagoras.

The earliest known masters of sacred geometry were the Egyptians who embedded its secrets in the art of their megalithic temples.

There are 3 great pyramids, 160 smaller ones will follow in time. The original builders and their purposes is arguable.

Difficult to date, and no recorded history. Especially when you mix in contemporary research, cross cultural myths and catastrophic archeology.

The first robberies and destruction of the Giza Pyramids and temples apparently occurred during the disorders of the first Intermediate Period, 2881 BC to 2133 BC.

While conducting explorations in the Great Pyramid in 1836, a British military man made an attempt to cut through the granite to find another chamber above.

Discovering that their hammers and hardened steel chisels were no match for the red granite, they resorted to using gunpowder and basted away the rock until the hallway to the king's chamber was revealed.

A ceiling of fine monolithic granite beams span the chamber.

To construct these five beams, it was necessary to use pieces of granite weighing up to 70 tons each. The red granite beams are cut square and parallel on three sides.

New, for the first time a gable roof redirects the force down and sideways.

Bringing just one of the blocks a distance down the Nile and raising it 175 feet in the air is remarkable achievement.

Giza Pyramid—10,000 to 2000 BC

2.6 million stones

45 stories tall

13 acres, enough stones make

30 Empire State buildings, a 10-foot wall around France

16 - 20 ton blocks from 100 miles
115,000 casting stones, 5'x7' highly polished would cover 19 million square feet with 1/50 inch tolerances

Kings chamber incased in the hardest of granite — .00021 inch tolerances.
Resonating towers

  1. 440 BC Herodotus Greek describes Pyramids as polished white.
  2. 820 AD an Arab tries to penetrate; iron tools won't cut into casting stones, so he tunnels 120 feet. Softer inner sandstone; hits descending passage, finds nothing. Creates a barrier to further discoveries until modern times.
  3. 10th-12th- AD casting stones removed to rebuild Cairo.
  4. The base of the great Pyramid at Giza is aligned more accurately until satellite photos with the four points of the compass, not stars?
  5. The north passage is aligned with the lower culmination of the North Star at the time the pyramids were built between 2686-2345 BC.
  6. Three great Pyramids aligned like Orion's belt with Nile as the Milky Way. Logarithmic golden spiral to Sphinx's right shoulder. Another spiral found at Parthenon.
  7. The pyramid is constructed using the mathematical formula of the cubit or pie, which is used to measure distances beyond a tape measure. It is 10 millionth part of center of Earth to the North Pole. This mathematical language describes Earth's relationship to the solar system. 6000 inches divided by 365.24.
  8. Earth's radius, circumference and average land mass above sea, and average distance to moon, center of earth's land mass.
  9. The pyramid shape amplifies electromagnetic energy. Kings chamber most active point.
  10. Timeline from entrance to King's chamber 4000, BC to 1900's at entrance.
  11. The fire within. The pyramids shape holds subatomic structure.
Purpose:
  1. To transcend Earth's relationship to cosmological influences, literal or extraterrestrial, or to transcend difference between linear, and multidimensional time, or life and death, past and future.
  2. Ritual becomes elaborate in returning Pharaoh back to Orion. Pharaohs must have magical powers to procreate with the goddess, Isis. The priestess from the oracle temples will represent her.
  3. As the light of Sirius comes through the 8-inch shaft, a divine spark for the Pharaoh's child, from Orion constellation. Sirius appears every 9 1/2 months to confirm divine conception.
  4. Initiates studies 12 years of left eye of Horus (emotional, body, mind, unity, love), Then into great pyramid to bring them into to realize right eye.