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ART204 Greek Classical

GOLDEN AGE OF ATHENS

499 BC Conflict with Persia
Fortification of Athens

490 BC Darius attacks - Battle of Marathon. Athens wins.

481 BC Sparta leads united attack with Persia.

480 BC Athens destroyed, end of Archaic

Rise of Athenian Empire. The Age of Pericles .

The classical Age 477 BC to 422 BC

477 BC Delian league formed under Athenian leadership, unites city states of the region with democratic reforms and populist movements. Pericles initiates reform, reconstruction of public works.

468 BC Persian fleet destroyed. Athens leads the Mediterranean in commerce, trading olive oil, grapes, wood for grains and spices. Major exports are ceramics and education.

454 BC Delian League treasury is moved to Athens. Pericles begins temple building on the Acropolis.

449 BC Pericles leads reconstruction of Athens with 30 years of truce with Sparta.. Athenian "imperialism" alienates city states in the south, leads to war with Sparta, against the Attican country side.

437-404 BC Peloponnesian wars joined by Persians. Athens will fall in 404 BC

Athens overpopulated and under siege, a typhoid epidemic outbreak. Pericles son and wife die.

422 BC. With loses to Persia Pericles is ousted from power.
Sparta offers an "honorable truce" but the "Solon" rejects it, being to prideful.
Socrates becomes the "scapegoat" and is imprisoned, Plato witnesses his death.

500 Buddha
469-399- Socrates
427-347 - Plato
384 BC- Aristotle
30 BC Jesus.

ATHENS, 5TH C. BC

The land of Hellas, originally a small city -state, is now dedicated to Athena, goddess of wisdom and victory in battle.

Athenian leaders envisioned a republic.

During this time of about 75 years Athens spawns a creative surge unequaled until the Renaissance, through many genesis and geni.

During the reconstruction, a birth of new understandings are founded on concepts of the study of being human.

That is still unfolding today, in the age of Humanism.

Artists and philosophers established a new rational perspective of nature because mortals are seen as the divine creative force.

Pericles brought the best of the artists and thinkers together, to reflect the perfect ideal of the divine into Athens during the Classical period.

ATHENS, 5TH C. BC

The land of Hellas, originally a small city -state, is now dedicated to Athena, goddess of wisdom and victory in battle.

Athenian leaders envisioned a republic.

During this time of about 75 years Athens spawns a creative surge unequaled until the Renaissance, through many genesis and geni.

During the reconstruction, a birth of new understandings are founded on concepts of the study of being human.

That is still unfolding today, in the age of Humanism.

Artists and philosophers established a new rational perspective of nature because mortals are seen as the divine creative force.

Pericles brought the best of the artists and thinkers together, to reflect the perfect ideal of the divine into Athens during the Classical period.

In this short time Athens reaches its greatest political and cultural heights.

And importantly, a humanist perspective is established in religion and philosophy.

That will move the planet closer to civilization.

The seed ideas of Humanism are still flowering after the Renaissance.

Under Alexander the Great, The Macedonians, under a Mesopotamian model of a divine kingship, will reestablish the concept of dominate to subordinated political system. Alex’s mother convinced him that Zeus fathered him.

Then with the Roman conquests, the tradition of a participatory government and humanist perspective of individualism disappears.

The idea that workers and warriors are expendable to the state will be exploited by the Roman Caesars.

CLASSICAL PHILOSOPHY
PERICLES

As I see things so they are for me. As you see things so they are for you.
Sets an ethic based on right of individual to develop one's own gifts and aspirations.

SOCRATES - 469-399 BC

Let our artists be those who are gifted to discern the true nature of the beautiful and graceful, then will our youth dwell in a land of health, amid fair sights and sounds, And beauty shall flow into the eye and ear like a health giving breeze, from a purer region, insensibly drawing the soul from earliest years into likeness and sympathy with the beauty of reason.

Socrates 469-399 BC

Divine power is as thought, a moving force of ideas, toward which everything strives to become.

Divine manifests in physical world through the mind for the senses to enjoy and then reflect back to the stars, (desire).

As perception though the arts is sharpened, so is the ideal which is manifested in reality.

A reflection of the ideal that only really exists in the divine.

The Socratic dialogue. To draw from within, ones own truth.

Man's own consciousness is better guide to right action than demands of society. Takes poison rather than recant his own truth.
Understanding can be expressed in mathematical formula that underlies the order, in nature and cosmos.

PLATO 427-347 BC

Reality is the experience of the reflection of the ideal through the mind.

Matter is the substance upon which the idea of, is impressed
through thought becoming your reality.

In this reflection mistakes are only the fallibility or imperfections of man.

There are as many insensible things as there are sensible.

An inner voice is heard to act as guide to a sense of morality.

ARISTOTLE 384 - 322 BC

Idea and form in this world is the real universe. Tends to deny anything as real which may exist beyond the sensory, pragmatic experience.

Cosmos is governed by thought, Thus universe is knowable.

Theory must follow demonstrable fact.

Leads to scientific rationalism

Logos / reason = divine / desire . As thought participates with random flux,

Order in cosmos is thus revealed.

So, there is a logic that underlies the universe.

ATHENA:

Most often Athena appeared as a warrior armed for battle with helmet, a breastplate fringed with snakes
And an owl representing wisdom.

Also worshiped in a more practical form was Athena the goddess of craftsmanship. Whose patronage of weavers and potters was important for the well being of the city's economy.

Her most famous image in antiquity was the forty-foot colossal statue fashioned of ivory and gold by the famed sculptor Phidias. It stood inside the Parthenon, constructed in 447-432 BC during the Golden Age of Perikles.

She is said to be born from Zeus head. He had a headache and with a special forged axe lets her out. Or she is seen as a descendent of the Libyan Amazon.

CLASSICAL AESTHETIC

Heighten realism in heroic terms
Union of form and motion,
In measured idealized forms